26 janvier 2018

USA 1917-1918 : Femmes au travail

 

herse-femme-usa1917

La légende mentionne une charrue.
Il s'agit plutôt d'un extirpateur* / houe à céréales, utilisé pour briser les mottes de terre.
Une version étroite, tirée par un seul cheval servait à désherber entre des sillons.
Les bottes en cuir avec talon, c'est une tenue peu fréquente dans le travail des champs.

Voilà un siècle, 19 photos montrant les femmes au travail, Huffington Post, 26.03.2015
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/26/women-working-100-years-ago_n_6940494.html


Ne pas oublier que les femmes travaillent déjà avant 14-18
(7 M d'actives recensées en France en 1911.
Y ajouter une sous-déclaration du travail à la ferme, par ex pour la traite des vaches)
http://clioweb.canalblog.com/archives/2012/12/20/25962413.html

Les photos US, surtout celles du travail de la terre, sont réalistes (photos 11, 16, 17, 18).
A la différence des affiches de propagande utilisées aux USA et au Canada pour vendre des bons du Trésor.
Les dessinateurs ont souvent exploité une photo invraisemblable et stupide (3 femmes tirant une herse)
diffusée en juillet 1917 par le magazine Lectures Pour Tous.
http://clioweb.canalblog.com/archives/2014/10/16/30804318.html

 


La légende des photos :
1
Lewis W. Hine / Buyenlarge / Getty Images

A young woman works as a warper on a power loom at the King Philip Mills, Fall River, Massachusetts, 1916.
2
Underwood Archives/Getty Images
Women workers in a garment factory, Vermont, circa 1915.
3
Cincinnati Museum Center/Getty Images
A group of women focus their attention on their work while employed by the Gibson Art Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, ca.1910s.
4
J. R. Schmidt/Paul Thompson/FPG/Getty Images
Women operate the new stretching machine for surgical dressing at the Red Cross headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, circa 1915. The machine, which was invented by Milton Griffith, can stretch 28 bolts of gauze in one day.
5
Paul Thompson/FPG/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
A group of chorus girls at the annual charity reception and dance held by the Ladies’ Auxiliary of St Vincent’s Hospital at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York, circa 1915
6
FPG/Getty Images
A woman working in a munitions factory during World War One, aiding the war effort whilst the men are away, USA, circa 1914-1918.
7
Lewis W. Hine/Buyenlarge/Getty Images
A young woman works as a harness maker at the American Linen Company, in Fall River, MA, 1916.
8
Lewis W. Hine/Buyenlarge/Getty Images
A thirteen-year-old girl (identified only as Mary) works with her aunt as they make flowers in a tenement room, New York, New York, 1911.
9
PhotoQuest/Getty Images
View of women factory workers seated at their work stations while operating machines to polish lenses, during the early twentieth century.
10
MPI/Getty Images
29th May 1919: Women rivet heaters and passers on ship construction work in the Navy Yard at Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington.
11
Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Female American college students working on a farm, as replacements for men called up to the military in World War I, USA, May 1918.
12
PhotoQuest/Getty Images
Women of the Sarah Caswell Angell chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, from Ann Arbor, Michigan, engage in war work activities to assist the Allied cause during World War I, 1918. During their sessions, they knit, make hospital garments, sew for French children, and make aviators’ vests.
13
Paul Thompson/FPG/Getty Images
A woman machine operator working with a cutting tool at an aircraft factory during World War 1.
14
Paul Thompson/FPG/Getty Images
Working women aiding the war effort in World War One; Agnes Kelley, Blanche Chegnon, Marie Provencher, Nina Hosington and Mary Tully, all from Lowell, Massachusetts, 1917.
15
FPG/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
A woman working in an American aircraft factory, 1917.
16
FPG/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Farmerettes’ help collect funds to supply milk for babies in France during World War I, circa 1918..
17
Bain News Service/Buyenlarge/Getty Images
A member of the Women’s Land Army of America plows a field, with a plow drawn by two horses, California, 1917.
18
Vintage Images/ Getty Images
Women out picking cotton, USA, circa 1910.
19
Bain News Service/Buyenlarge/Getty Images
Students at Barnard College participate in a botany class at the college’s greenhouse, ca 1915.


*

agri-instru-anciens


http://www.etsy.com/fr/listing/479513736/1897-materiel-agricole-ancien-collection

voir aussi Larousse 1922, instruments agricoles
http://www.etsy.com/fr/listing/567922196/agriculture-1922-illustration-vintage

 

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Posté par clioweb à 08:05 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
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07 octobre 2014

WW1 : Femmes et chevaux

 

 

WW1-3paysannes

Le web en anglais apporte une forte contradiction
à la mise en scène des  3 robustes paysannes tirant une herse.
Dans de nombreuses photos, des femmes ( souvent en pantalon et bandes molletières )
conduisent des chevaux
pour travailler la terre.

wla-q30655

Une femme, assise, un cultivateur à trois roues tiré par deux chevaux
http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib//57/media-57379/large.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Land_Army#mediaviewer/File:Agriculture_in_Britain_during_the_First_World_War_Q30655.jpg


- Britain Women ‘s Land Army

The roots of the WLA lie in World War One. Germany successfully mounted naval blockades on Britain's food imports, which made up 50% of the country's requirements. There was an acute farm labour shortage because workers were needed for military service and horses were commandeered by the forces. In 1917 the harvest failed and Britain was left with just three weeks' reserve of food. Famine loomed.
The Government's Food Production Department acted with alacrity and set up the Land Army. Lady Trudie Denman (of the fledgling Women's Institute) was appointed to organise the WLA and by 1918 there were 23,000 Land Girls at work milking, ploughing, herding and even thatching. In 1919 the WLA was disbanded as men returned home and shipping once again delivered food to Britain. http://news.bbc.co.uk/dna/place-lancashire/plain/A2116478

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Land_Army

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:British_Women%27s_Land_Army_in_World_War_I

 

plough-horses-q_54601

charrue et deux chevaux
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-26238755

a single-furrow plough
http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-womens-land-army-in-pictures

The woman drives the plough (affiche)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d3/WWILandArmyPoster.jpg

 

wla-cart-Q30654

Women and cart :
http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib//57/media-57378/large.jpg

wla-wood-Q106565

Members of the Women's Forestry Corps loading logs onto a horse-drawn sledge
for transportation in woodland at Cross In Hand, Heathfield, Sussex,
 http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib//14/media-14812/large.jpg


A woman leads a horse from the stables on a farm
http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-womens-land-army-in-pictures

A woman land worker sowing seeds, elle marche derrière le semoir attelé
http://www.amdigital.co.uk/m-editorial-blog/womens-land-army/

Une herse et deux chevaux
http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/womenww1_four.htm

A cow-girl :
http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib//57/media-57403/large.jpg

http://media.iwm.org.uk/iwm/mediaLib//57/media-57404/large.jpg



Côté français, le film d'Alexandre Devarennes, La femme française, 1918 (ECPAD) montre les femmes au travail dans toutes les activités, à la ville ou à la campagne. http://www.ecpad.fr/la-femme-francaise-pendant-la-guerre

Deux copies d'écran, vers la 17eme minute :

ad-boeufs

 

ad-chevaux

Pas de robuste paysanne s'attelant à l'outil, mais des femmes conduisant des chevaux ou des boeufs... 

 

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Posté par clioweb à 21:00 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
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