26 octobre 2015

Quand le Texas réécrit l'histoire

 

How Texas Teaches History
By Ellen Bresler Rockmore the NYT Opinions pages, oct. 21 2015
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/22/opinion/how-texas-teaches-history.html

extraits :
« A McGraw-Hill ‘s geography textbook describes the Atlantic slave trade as bringing millions of « workers » to plantations in the American South. The publisher has acknowledged that the term “workers” was a misnomer » .


La mnière d’écrire cette histoire est aussi révélatrice :

« Some slaves reported that their masters treated them kindly. To protect their investment, some slaveholders provided adequate food and clothing for their slaves. However, severe treatment was very common. Whippings, brandings, and even worse torture were all part of American slavery »

La voix active, avec des êtres humains comme sujets, est utilisée pour tout ce qui peut servir d'excuses pour l’esclavage dans une histoire ultra-conservatrice. La voix passive est employée pour décrire tout ce qui est torture et mauvais traitement.

« Families were often broken apart when a family member was sold to another owner » ?
N'aurait-il pas fallu écrire :
« Slave owners often broke slave families apart by selling a family member to another owner »


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28 juillet 2015

Texas : l'histoire, une arme politique


 
Texas : l'histoire scolaire, une arme aux mains des politiciens.

- Texas' New History Textbooks Are a Disaster
Zak Cheney-Rice 08.07.2015
http://mic.com/articles/121939/new-texas-history-textbooks-will-play-down-slavery


- Texas : Schools should teach that slavery was ‘side issue’ to Civil War
Emma Brown, The Washington Post, 05.07.2015

Texas' new social studies textbooks will not mention
A) Jim Crow laws,
B) the Ku Klux Klan or
C) the primary role slavery played in launching the U.S. Civil War
http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/150-years-later-schools-are-still-a-battlefield-for-interpreting-civil-war/2015/07/05/


- Texas Conservatives Win Curriculum Change

ZCR cite aussi le New York Times du 12.03.2010 à propos de l’élaboration du curriculum.
« After three days of turbulent meetings, the Texas Board of Education on Friday approved a social studies curriculum that will put a conservative stamp on history and economics textbooks, stressing the superiority of American capitalism, questioning the Founding Fathers’ commitment to a purely secular government and presenting Republican political philosophies in a more positive light ».

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/13/education/13texas.html

Dans ce curriculum de sciences sociales, Thomas Jefferson a été effacé et remplacé par Thomas d'Aquin et Calvin.
Friedman et Hayek sont célébrés.


Un exemple :
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies
Subchapter C. High School
http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter113/
http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter113/ch113c.pdf

extraits
:
The student is expected to
. explain the contributions of the Founding Fathers such as Benjamin Rush, John Hancock, John Jay,
John Witherspoon, John Peter Muhlenberg, Charles Carroll, and Jonathan Trumbull Sr

. analyze major military events of World War II, including the Battle of Midway, the U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands,
the Bataan Death March, the invasion of Normandy, fighting the war on multiple fronts, and the liberation of concentration camps;
. describe the causes and key organizations and individuals of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s and 1990s,
including Phyllis Schlafly, the Contract with America, the Heritage Foundation, the Moral Majority, and the National Rifle Association;

. analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from legal and illegal immigration to the United States


Les manuels élaborés sur ordre de la majorité politique et achetés par l'Etat du Texas influencent fortement les Etats voisins.
Ils préparent une génération marquée par une vision très orientée de l'histoire des USA et du monde.

« Texas’s social studies standards are more politicized than any other state », said Jeremy A. Stern, a historian who reviewed state standards for the conservative-leaning Thomas B. Fordham Institute in 2011.
« History can be a weapon », said the sociologist James W. Loewen, and it has been used « against all of us. It makes us all stupid about the past and thoughtless about the present ».


rappels :
- Le curriculum d'histoire made in USA, Samuel Kuhn
http://aggiornamento.hypotheses.org/1754

- Construction et négociation de l’identité nationale.
Une étude comparatiste des programmes et des manuels scolaires d’histoire pour le primaire en France et aux États-Unis (1980-2010)
Rachel Hutchins, Histoire@Politique, n° 26, mai-août 2015
http://www.histoire-politique.fr/index.php?numero=26
http://idea-udl.org/members/hutchins/

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